Components Of Healthy Diet- Balanced Diet
Health remains an important factor for every one. Every person thinks about healthy food and healthy diet and for the
reason adopts healthy eating. But what are the components of healthy food ? So in this article i will write components of
healthy diet in detail :
Like all other organisms, human beings require food to grow,reproduce and maintain good health. Every person required balanced diet in his or her life of maintenance of good health. The following are the major components of human food.
Carbohydrates are the major source of energy. They contain the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. we obtain most of our carbohydrate in the form of starch.
This is found in rice, potato, bread and cereals. Our digestive system turn this starch into simpler carbohydrate called glucose. Blood carries glucose to all cells, where it is used in respiration for energy.
If a gram of carbohydrate is fully oxidized it produces about four calories of energy. The glucose which is not used by seeks is converted into glycogen that is stored in the muscles and liver.
The body’s glycogen storage capacity is limited , so any unused glucose is converted to fat.
“The simple answer as to why we get fat is that carbohydrates make us so; protein and fat do not”
Proteins are required for growth and repair. Proteins are made up of simple unites call amino acids. There are over 20 different types of amino acid. An amino acid contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulphur. Protein are large molecules so they can not get directly into blood. They are broken into amino acid by our digestive system. Cells can convert amino acid back to protein.
Proteins are essential components of the cytoplasm, membranes and organelles. They are also the major parts of muscles, ligaments and tendons. Protein can also be used as source of energy. One gram of protein contains 4 kilo-calories of energy.
Plant sources of proteins are beans, pulses, cereals, and dry fruits, whereas, animal sources include cheese,milk,poultry,fish,mutton and beef.
Famous Protein quote :
“Skin is made in large measure of a protein called collagen “
Fats ( Lipids )
Fats belong to a group of organic compound called lipids. They are made of fatty acids and glycerol. They contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Fats serve both metabolic and structural functions. When the body has used up the carbohydrates, it oxidizes fats to great energy. one gram of fats provide 9 kilo-calories of energy.
Fats are stored in the cells of adipose tissue ( fatty tissue ).This tissue is present beneath the skin and around important organs. It insulates organs against shocks and also maintains body temperature.
Other functions of fats include maintaining healthy skin and hair. Fats help in the digestion, transport of vitamins A,D,E and K in the body. The common sources of fats are butter, ghee, cheese , meat, egg yolk, milk , nuts etc.
Vitamins are organic food substances found only in living things. With the few exceptions, the body can not manufacture vitamins. They must be supplied by the diet or in dietary supplements.
Vitamins are essential to the normal functioning of our bodies. Vitamins may be divided into two groups : the fat-soluble vitamins ( Vitamins A,D,E, and K ) and the water-soluble vitamins ( vitamins B and in C ). Our bodies can store fat-soluble vitamins and can use them when needed. Water soluble vitamins are not stored in our body. Vitamins family is described below in detail :
a) Vitamin A
Vitamin A is also known as retinol, a name given in reference to its participation in the functions of the retina of the eye. This Vitamin also participates in the functions of the immune system and helps in growth and reproduction.
Dietary deficiency of vitamin A may cause vision problems and night blindness. Vitamin A deficiency can also affect growth, skin and immune system.
Animal sources of vitamin A are chicken liver, cod liver oil, eggs, butter, milk etc.
Plant sources of vitamin A are sweet potatoes, carrots , spinach, mangoes, oranges, grapefruit etc.
b) Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin. It is needed for the growth and repair of body tissues. It helps the body to make collagen, an important protein in skin, cartilage, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels. Vitamin C is essential for healing wounds and for repairing and maintaining bones and teeth.
Signs of vitamin C deficiency include drying and splitting of hair, inflammation and bleeding of gums, rough, dry and scaly skin, decreased wound healing, nosebleeds and a decreased ability to fight infection.A severe form of vitamin C deficiency is known as scurvy. Sources of vitamin C are tomatoes, strawberries, broccoli, cabbage, guava etc.
c) Vitamin D
Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin. it aids in the absorption of calcium, helping to form and maintain strong bones. The major function of vitamin D is to maintain normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus. It is also made by the skin. When ultraviolet rays from sunlight strike the skin, they trigger vitamin D synthesis.
Due to deficiency of vitamin D, bones can become thin, brittle and soft. In children, vitamin D deficiency leads to rickets (a condition in which bones weaken and bow under pressure).In adults, vitamin D deficiency causes osteomalacia mean “soft bones” thus increasing the risk for features in bones. Main sources of vitamin D are cod liver oil, egg yolk, fortified bread, cheese etc.
Minerals are inorganic elements that originate in the earth and cannot be made in the body. They play important role in various body functions. Most of the minerals in the human diet come directly from plants, animals and water.
The minerals required in the amount of 100 mg ( milligrams ) or more per day are called major minerals e.g sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and sulfur.
The minerals in the amounts less than 100 mg per day are called trace minerals e.g iron, zinc , copper, chromium, fluoride, iodine, selenium, manganese and molybdenum.
a. Role of Calcium
Calcium is one of the most important and most abundant minerals in the human body. It plays an important role in the development and maintenance of the bones.
Calcium is also needed for tooth formation. It plays an important role in blood clotting, transmission of nerve impulses , muscle contraction, and other metabolic activities.
Dairy products are the major source of calcium. Eggs, green leafy vegetables, broccoli, leguments , nuts and whole grains provide calcium but in smaller amount than dairy products.
b. Role of Iron
Iron is an important mineral. It is a part of hemoglobin molecule, which helps the red blood cells to transport oxygen to the cells of the body. Iron also helps the immune and central nervous systems.
The main sources of iron are red meat, fish, beans,dried fruit, green vegetables and apple.
Dietary fibers is also known as ” roughage ” or ” bulk “. It is the part of human food that is indigestible. It mainly of cellulose and is found in vegetables, fruits and cereals. Dietary fibers move unaltered through the digestive system.
There are two types of dietary fibers ; insoluble and soluble.
Insoluble fibers do not dissolve in water and travels through the small intestine quickly. Wheat bran, whole gran breads and cereals, as well as the skins of many fruits and vegetables , contain insoluble fibers.
Soluble fibers break down as it passes passes through the digestive track, forming a gel that traps harmful substances e.g cholesterol. Oats, beans, barley and many fruits and vegetables contain soluble fibers.
Dietary fibers speed up the passage of food through the gut. So it reduces the risk of constipation and colon so controls the blood cholesterol level.
Water is the most abundant substance in the human body. We have about 70% water in our body. Water performs many functions. Some are following :
- In our bodies, metabolic reactions can only occur when the reactants are dissolved. Water acts as the solvent for reactants of metabolism.
- The water present if blood dissolves oxygen from lungs. In this way, oxygen is transported to cells. Carbon dioxide is transported from cells to lungs in the same way. Similarly, water carries nutrients from digestive system to all cells of the body.
- Almost every cell in the body is bathed in interstitial fluid which is almost entirely water.
- Water acts as reactant in many metabolic reactions e.g. in hydrolysis reactions.
- Water is great stabilizer of body temperature. It absorbs and releases heat very slowly.
- Water also acts as lubricating medium. It is the major part of mucous and other lubricating fluids.
- Water is the flushing medium for the remove of toxic chemicals e.g. Urea through kidneys.
” Thousands Have Lived Without Love, Not One Without Water “
Also read !