Smoking is a health problem of high relevance and the main preventable cause of death worldwide. Smoking has established as risk main factor for developing of chronic obstructive pulmory diseases , cancer and atherosclerosis among other non – communicable diseases, being the main causes of death associated to smoking. Therefore, there are various effects of smoking on your body !
Cigarette is a mix of more than 4000 constituents in which are found different chemical products.
Recent research has identified some components of cigarette and its adverse effects such as nicotine, ammonaic, acrolein, phenols, acetaldehyde , N- nitrosamine, benzoprine, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen cyanine, polonium, radium and thorium.
All of them with adverse effects for health of those who are exposed to them.
Cardiovascular risk associated to smoking
Effects of smoking on your body begins with this first risk that is causing of cardiovascular disease !
Smoking is one of the main causes of atherosclerotic disease and it is considered one of the main risk factors for coronary arterial disease in combination with arterial hypertension and lipid profile abnormalities.
This finding is especially relevant given that cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death in developed countries.
The two main physio pathological mechanism related to coronary arterial disease are atherosclerosis and thrombosis.
Atherosclerosis implies endothelial damage, profilation of muscle cells in the itmal layer.
For its part , thrombosis, which generates acute occlusion of blood vessel in the place of fractured atherosclerotic plaque, is the final point of most of the coronary problems.
It also effects your body’s metabolism process. In short, effects of smoking are uncountable !!
Smoking is the main factor of endothelial lesion, which in turn is predecessor of atherosclerosis.
It has been proved that nicotine shows a scaling effect on endothelial, probably as consequence of shear stress increasing blood viscosity and heart rate increase, cardiac output , blood pressure related to smoking.
Besides damage by mechanic effects, poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons presented in cigarette, induce chemical damage.
Smoking also induces vascular smooth muscle proliferation inducing larger plaque adhesion into the endothelium injured.
The main effects related to smoking are generated as consequence of sympathetic autonomous nervous system activation.
CONDITIONS AND DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH SMOKING
|Cardiovascular||Coronary arterial diseases,
cerebral vascular disease
|Respiratory||Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Lung cancer|
Effects of smoking includes increases in heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output and vasoconstriction, contributing to the highest demand of oxygen !
Carbon monoxide present in smoking reduces the capacity of oxygen transport.
Smoking also induces coronary spasm, promoting myocardial ischemia presence.
Smoking is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This habit promotes serum increasing of the whole cholesterol.
Similarly, smokers show higher serum levels of triglycerides than non-smokers!!
Smoking induces alterations in the metabolism of lipoprotiens, reduces the distensibility of arterial walls.
COMPONENTS OF CIGARETTES AND ITS EFFECTS
|Carbon Monoxide||Prevent transport and use of oxygen|
|Hydrocyanic Acid||Cytotoxin, Irritating|
|Nitrogen Oxide||Cytotoxin, Irritating|
|Nicotine||Addictive drug, stimulant and depressant neuroendocrine|
|Phenol||Carcinogen and irritating|
|Cresol||Carcinogen and irritating|
Smoking and Diabetes
The increased cardiovascular risk associated to smoking increases the cardiovascular risk pre-existing related to diabetes.
It has been estimated that the risk of smokers and former smokers of the developing diabetes type ( 2 ) is of 49% and 31% larger as compared controls non-smokers, independently of the presence of other factors such as age, corporal mass rate and body composition.
The higher risk related to diabetes to smoking is evidenced in the group of age which is found between 40 to 70 years of both the genders.
Smokers diabetic patients show higher risk of coronary arterial disease and peripheral arterial disease with the increased of dyslipidemia observed in diabetes.
It is related to higher activity of liver lipase which increases the production of particles LDL.
Even though, the prevalence of smokers has globally decreased. It is not an observe change in diabetic population, However.
Consumption of cigarette by hour during 6 hours is keenly associated to the reduction of insulin sensitivity. It reduces the peripheral catchment of glucose!
The consumption of 4 cigarette in one hour is associated to affinity reduction of insulin with its receptor.
Smokers are more resistant to mediated glucose uptake by insulin and show larger insulinemia after an oral charge of glucose.
Insulin resistance observed in smoking is indeed responsible of reduction of serum levels of HDL.
The vasoconstriction related to smoking reduces muscle blood flow and promotes the resistance to insulin.
The chemical components might have direct effect on lungs, pancreases and liver of human body. IT affects cells B function.
HvAIC is another factor which is found in smokers , it is higher is non-diabetic smokers than in former smokers and even less in individuals who have ever smoked!
The higher amount of cigarette consumed daily, the higher is risk of HbAIC, lungs diseases and other dangerous diseases.
Effects of smoking are further extended to Pulmonary Diseases!
Smoking and Pulmonary Diseases
Smoking is the main cause of pulmonary diseases. The people who takes 1 packet of cigarette every day are highly affected by this disease !
Research shows that pulmonary disease ( caused due to smoking ) is the fifth cause of death in developed countries and major death are as a result of this smoking !
Pulmonary Disease is 4-25 times higher in smokers than non-smokers.
Smokers induces a series of pathophysiological changes in airways that is :
- In epithelelium of main airways promotes the loss of cilia, hyperplasia of mucous glands and increase number of globose cells.
- The smallest airways of smokers show inflamation and atrophy, metaplasia of globose cells.
Immune function alterations promote the disease progression and pulmonary damage in smokers.
The next effects of smoking on the body is measured as CANCER.
Cancer and Smoking
Cancer is the second cause of death in many developed countries.
Types of cancers caused due to smoking are found 50% in men while 25% in women.
Smoking is the main cause of lung cancer. Among 80 and 90% of neoplasia is attributed to the cause.
The risk of developing lung cancer increases with smoking intensity and also length of the habit of smoking.
The risk of cancer is around 4 times for a person who consumes 1-9 cigarettes per day, 11 times for persons who consume 1 package per day and the risk becomes 20 times higher for those who consume 2 or more package per day.
When smoking is stopped, the risk slowly decreases. Requiring 10 years for reducing the risk presented at the moment of stopping risk.
The risk of developing lung cancer never returns to non-smokers, achieving a reduction until a minimum of 2 times when comparing to non-smokers.
The Effects Of Smoking is now explained in terms of gastrointestinal disorders!
Smoking and Gastrointestinal Disorders
Gastric and ulcers are more prevalent in smokers than non-smokers.
The relative risk of smokers comparing to non-smokers for gastric ulcers is 4, 1.
The mortality associated with gastric ulcers in smokers os 3 times higher than in non-smokers.
The relationship between peptic ulcer and smoking is highly casual. Smoking limits pancreatic bicarbonate production.
The mortality for hepatic is estimated 5 times higher in smokers than non-smokers!
Similarly, the disease risk of Crohn is 2,1 times higher in smokers comparing to non-smokers.
The last but not the least comes Abdominal Obesity in list of effects of smoking on human body !
Abdominal Obesity and Smoking
Abdominal obesity is associated with atherogenic profile, being a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes type 2 , cerebral vascular incidents and mortality for all causes independently.
The ideal method to determine abdominal obesity is the abdominal perimeter measures by its high correlation.
Smokers tend to have less body weight and lower rates of body mass than non-smokers.
Smokers might reduce insulin sensibility while increasing circulating levels of antagonistic hormones to insulin as the growth insulin.
Besides it might increase the lipolysis which works in increasing the circulating free fat acids.
Nicotine, carbon monoxide and others associated with smoking plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance.
Similarly , it has been observed that smoking reduces the activity of lipase lipoprotien.